Europe’s electricity demand is expected to double or triple by 2050 while the European Union (EU) has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 85-90%. To realize a single energy market by 2014, Europe needs to organize and rationalize its various energy transmission systems into an integrated transnational network. This new system should allow an efficient use of electricity obtained from various renewable sources and regulated through a grid system consisting of mini-, smart- and super-grids.
Mini-grids can appear in a great variety of systems including single localities or even single isolated buildings that could potentially make consumers into producers as well. Smart-grids will play a crucial role in improving the energy efficiency and in reducing carbon emissions of towns and cities. On the pan-European level, the super- grid concept can upgrade existing grids making them more homogenous, thus enabling and balancing the distribution of electricity to meet demand across Europe.